Title I, Part A: Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged

Title 1, Part A programs ensure that all children have a fair, equal and significant opportunity to obtain a high-quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency on challenging state academic achievement standards and state academic assessments.

Title I, Part A Overview


Schoolwide Programs

Targeted Assistance Programs

Supplement, Not Supplant

Homeless Set-Aside Funds

Full-Day Kindergarten Mandate



School Support/School Improvement

Consolidation of Funds in a Schoolwide Program

Elementary and Secondary Education Act


Public Notice to Waive the Carryover Limitation (pdf)

Federal Programs Resource Toolkit pdf | doc

Homeless Liaison Toolkit (pdf)

Title I Parent Meeting Toolkit (pdf)

Title I Parent Meeting Presentation (ppt)

District Title I Plan  pdf | doc

District Title I Plan Cover Page  pdf | doc

2013 Comparability Presentation pdf | ppt

Charter School Packet pdf | doc

Title IA Virtual Remediation/Credit Recovery Policy (pdf)

Use of Title I Funds to Support Common Core State Standards (pdf)

FY15 District Assignments (pdf)

ESEA Flexibility Waiver Vision 2020 Presentation pdf | ppt

Schoolwide Consolidation Memo (pdf)

Schoolwide Consolidation Overview pdf | ppt

2012-2013 Highly Qualified Teacher Status Memo (pdf)

Guidance and Law

Title I, Part A Law

No Child Left Behind Law (pdf)

SEA Procedures for Adjusting Allocations (pdf)

Title I, Fiscal Issues (Consolidating Funds in Schoolwide Programs)

Paraprofessionals Guidance (pdf)

LEA and School Improvement Guidance (pdf)

Designing Schoolwide Programs Guidance (pdf)

Parental Involvement Guidance (pdf)

Private School Services Guidance (pdf)

Serving Preschool Children Guidance (pdf)

Report Cards Guidance (pdf)

Identifying Allocations Guidance (pdf)

Supplemental Educational Services Guidance (pdf)

ESEA Flexibility Waiver

Title I, Part A Set-Asides Sliding Scale Guidance (pdf)


Program Purpose: Ensure that all children have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high-quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency on challenging state academic achievement standards and state academic assessments.

Program Statute: Public Law 107-110 § 1003; § 1111-1127; § 1401-1432

Funding Source: Federal

Amount of Funding, FY12: $154,441,460

Distribution: Non-competitive

Title I, Part A - Improving Basic Programs Offered by Local Education Agencies
$147,471,822 Allocated to Local Education Agencies
$1,469,973 State Education Agency Administration

Title I, Part D - Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk
$953,445 Subpart 2 - Local Agency Programs
$4,546,220 School Support - School Improvement

Eligible Recipients: All districts meeting Title I criteria

Performance Measures: State Accountability System based on the Academic Performance Index, specifically in reading and mathematics, according to federal requirements.

Documented Evidence of Results: United States Department of Education Consolidated State Performance Report; United States Department of Education Student Achievement and School Accountability (SASA) Monitoring; District and site determination of Adequate Yearly Progress


Paraprofessionals can play important roles in improving student achievement in Title I schools where they can reinforce and augment a teacher's effort in the classroom. Unfortunately, studies indicate that paraprofessionals are used in many Title I schools for teaching and assisting in teaching when their educational backgrounds do not qualify them for such responsibilities. Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), requires that paraprofessionals meet higher standards of qualification, and ensures that students who need the most help receive instructional support only from qualified paraprofessionals.

For the purposes of Title I, Part A, a paraprofessional is an employee of an LEA who provides instructional support in a program supported with Title I, Part A funds.

"Paraprofessionals who provide instructional support," includes those who (1) provide one-on-one tutoring if such tutoring is scheduled at a time when a student would not otherwise receive instruction from a teacher, (2) assist with classroom management, such as by organizing instructional materials, (3) provide instructional assistance in a computer laboratory, (4) conduct parental involvement activities, (5) provide instructional support in a library or media center, (6) act as a translator, or (7) provide instructional support services under the direct supervision of a highly qualified teacher. [Title I, Section 119(g)(2)]

Because paraprofessionals provide instructional support, they should not be providing planned direct instruction, or introducing to students new skills, concepts or academic content.

Paraprofessionals in Schoolwide and Targeted Assistance Schools

A teacher aide/paraprofessional is an individual who assists students under the direction of a highly qualified teacher. The United States Department of Education (USDE) guidance defines a teacher's aide/paraprofessional as an employee who provides instructional support, by reinforcing a teacher's effect in the classroom, in a program supported with Title I, Part A funds.

  • A paraprofessional in both Schoolwide and Targeted Assistance schools works under the direct supervision of a teacher and (1) the teacher must prepare the lesson and plan the instructional support activities the paraprofessional carries out and evaluate the achievement of the students with whom the paraprofessional is working; and (2) the paraprofessional must work in close proximity with the teacher.
  • Upon hire, all paraprofessionals in a Schoolwide school and those paraprofessionals working in a Title I lab in a Targeted Assistance school must meet at least one of the Title I, Part A requirements of NCLB as follows:
  1. Obtain an associates degree (or higher) from an institution of higher education; or
  2. Complete at least two years (48 hours) of study at an institution of higher education; or
  3. Meet a rigorous standard of quality, which includes an assessment of reading, writing and math. In Oklahoma, the paraprofessional will need to pass either the WorkKeys test, the Parapro test offered through the Educational Testing Services (ETS) or the Oklahoma General Education Test (OGET).
  • Allowable duties for paraprofessionals are defined in NCLB section 119(g)(2)(A)(B)(C)(D)(E)(F)(G) and are as follows:
  1. Provide one-on-one tutoring for eligible students in a Targeted Assistance school and all students in a Schoolwide school, only at a time when a student would not otherwise receive instruction from a teacher;
  2. Assist in classroom management in a Schoolwide school or assist with Title I lab management in a Targeted Assistance school;
  3. Provide computer lab assistance for all students in a Schoolwide school and for identified Title I students in a Targeted Assistance school;
  4. Conduct parental involvement activities;
  5. Serve as a translator for any children in need of one in a Schoolwide school and for identified Title I students in a Targeted Assistance school;
  6. Provide support in a library or media center in a Schoolwide school. In a Targeted Assistance school, any services provided by a Title I funded paraprofessional in a library or media center would have to be supplemental and target identified students; and
  7. Provide instructional support services under the direct supervision of any highly qualified teacher in a Schoolwide school and under the direct supervision of a Title I teacher in a Targeted Assistance school.

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Schoolwide Programs

Designing Schoolwide Programs Guidance (pdf) Schoolwide Program Guiding Questions (pdf)
District Process for Schoolwide School Planning (pdf) Letter of Intent to Establish Schoolwide Program (xls)
Schoolwide Plan Template pdf | doc Letter of Intent to Establish Schoolwide Program Fast-Track (pdf)
Annual Review Template pdf | doc WISE Tool
Schoolwide Consolidation Memo (pdf) Schoolwide Videoconference Schedule (word)


A Schoolwide program is a comprehensive reform strategy to upgrade the entire educational program in a Title I school; in effect, reaching all students, including those who are low-achieving. To be eligible for a Schoolwide program, schools must have a poverty level of at least 40%, unless a school has been identified by the State Education Agency as a Priority or Focus school. Title I Priority and Focus schools or Title I-eligible Priority and Focus schools that are not operating a Title I Schoolwide Program have the option to begin doing so immediately since the LEA or C³S will be implementing interventions consistent with the Turnaround Principles.

Title I funds are used to supplement the amount of funds or services that would, in the absence of Title I funds, be made available to the school. Funds may not be used to fund programs or activities mandated by state, local or Federal law; to fund programs that were paid for in previous years with state and/or local funds; or, to provide the same programs or activities offered at non-Title I schools or to students not identified for Title I in the district. A Schoolwide program at schools that have not been identified as Priority or Focus requires one year of planning and one comprehensive site plan for each Schoolwide site. The comprehensive Schoolwide plan must be reviewed and revised annually.

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Targeted Assistance Programs


In a Targeted Assistance program, Title I funds are used to assist identified students in meeting the state's academic standards. To be eligible, districts must have a poverty level of at least 35% or be at or above the district average poverty level. In this type of program, Title I funds are used to implement programs for eligible students that would not be available in the absence of federal funds. Title I funds may not be used to fund programs or activities mandated by state local or Federal law; to fund programs that were paid for in previous years with state and or local funds; or to provide the same programs or activities offered at non-Title I schools or to students in the district whom are not identified for Title I.

Student Selection Criteria

Title I law requires that selection of Title I students be based on objective, uniformly applied criteria given to all students at each grade level and documented on a student selection worksheet. Listed below are specific points to keep in mind regarding the process of student selection:

  • The criteria for eligibility for Title I services must be objective, education-related, and uniformly applied.
  • Selection criteria for students in grades three and above must be objective; however, the law does allow for subjective criteria for Kindergarten through second grade.
  • A worksheet must be completed that demonstrates that data has been compiled, compared, and documented for all students that have been selected. These worksheets should also document who will receive services. The students must be ranked in priority order according to greatest need for services.
  • The selection criteria should be given to all students in each particular grade being served.
  • Examples of acceptable criteria used for student selection could include: report card grades, book chapter and unit test grades, informal reading inventories, benchmark assessments, and computer based assessments.
  • Multiple criteria must be used in the student selection process.
  • Economically disadvantaged, learning disabled, LEP, and migrant students must be selected on the same basis as all other students. They can not be excluded solely because they are receiving other services.
  • A child who is homeless and attending any school served by the district is eligible for Title I services. A child who participated in Head Start, Even Start, or received services under Part C in the preceding two years is eligible for Title I services.
  • If a new student moves into the district, they must be selected and ranked in the same way as the other eligible students receiving services. For this reason, schools are discouraged from using the Oklahoma Core Curriculum Test as a selection criterion. It is best to use criteria that are readily available if a new student needs to be tested.
  • A large district with multiple buildings may decide to use a uniform set of criteria in all Title I schools; however, it is not mandatory.
  • Large districts with very high numbers of students may also begin the student selection process by designating one criteria to be used to identify an eligible pool of possible Title I students. The remaining criteria would then be applied only to this eligible pool of students, and the results would identify those students who are eligible for Title I.
  • The average caseload for a Title I teacher is 25-35 students. A caseload above 45 students is too many for one teacher to oversee; however, very small caseloads may indicate a need to widen the selection criteria to make more students eligible for the program.
  • The basic rule of thumb is that only students who have been found to be eligible for Title I, and whose parents have been informed, should receive Title I services. Title I services are not meant to be general aid to the classroom. The purpose is to give identified students additional services above and beyond the primary instruction they receive in the classroom.
  • Title I law requires local school districts to assume the cost and responsibility of identifying students in need of Title I services. Schools cannot use Title I funds to test all students for the purpose of identifying Title I students. Schools that are testing all students with the Oklahoma Core Curriculum Test, or any other assessments, must use state, local, and other Federal funds for this expenditure, not Title I funds.

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Supplement, Not Supplant

In general, to supplement, not supplant means that Title I funds are used to implement programs and services that would not be available if it were not for these federal funds. In other words, if Title I funds were not available to do this activity, the district would not do it.

There is no one supplement, not supplant definition that applies to the whole No Child Left Behind Act. Rather, the supplement, not supplant requirements are spelled out in various parts of the Act and are often defined differently. For instance, the Title I section of NCLB states that federal Title I funds should only be used to supplement the funds that would, in absence of such federal funds, be made available from  non-federal sources. Whereas, the Title V section of the law prevents school districts from shifting local, state, or other costs to Title V. In other words, the Title V supplement, not supplant language is stricter than the Title I supplement, not supplant language. School districts should make sure they fully understand the supplement, not supplant language of the federal program they are working with.

The Supplement, Not Supplant Tests

When determining whether a fiscal expenditure supplements and does not supplant, school districts must run these three tests:

Test I: Required
Is the program or activity that the district wants to fund required under state, local, or another federal law? If it is, then using Title I funds to pay for it is supplanting.

Test II: Equivalency
Were state or local funds used in the past to pay for this program or activity? If so, using Title I funds to pay for it is supplanting.

Test III: Non-Title I Programs
Are the same programs or activities being implemented in other schools that do not receive Title I funds or to other children that are not identified for Title I in Targeted Assistance programs and are these programs and activities being paid for with state or local funds? If yes, then using Title I funds to pay for them is supplanting.

If an expenditure does not pass any of the above tests, then it is presumed that Title I funds are supplanting state or local funds.

The supplement, not supplant requirement is a key regulation in NCLB. When school districts are monitored, the supplement, not supplant regulation is taken into consideration during this review. If the monitor determines that there has been a supplanting violation, the school district may have to repay Title I funds relating to this issue. In addition, violations of the supplement, not supplant requirement could affect a school district's future Title I allocations.

It is possible for a school district to have a particular expense that may look like supplanting, but in actuality, it is not. Districts in this scenario must be sure to provide adequate documentation. This documentation would need to prove how the three tests outlined above have been passed, including:

  • Demonstrate that the program or activity would not have been provided if Title I funds were not available.
  • Demonstrate that the state or local funds that had been paying for this program or activity in previous years are no longer available.
  • Provide documentation that the "Title I look-alike" program is funded by supplemental local funds, specifically set-aside for this purpose.

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Homeless Set-Aside

All public schools and districts receiving federal funds must ensure that services are provided to children and youth who are experiencing homelessness. To assist with these services, the law requires that school districts with non-Title I schools to set aside Title I funds to provide services comparable to those that are provided to children in Title I, Part A funded schools. These funds can also support educationally related services to children in shelters and other locations where homeless children may live. The services provided with these funds should support homeless students to succeed in school and to meet the academic achievement standards.

Comparable services do not necessarily mean the same services; however, these funds may also be used to provide services that are not ordinarily provided to other Title I students.

If your district has students who meet the definition of homelessness according to Title X, McKinney-Vento, listed below are some strategies on how you may use your Title I homeless set-aside funds and/or McKinney-Vento funds.

  • Homeless awareness activities
  • Testing fees
  • Evaluations
  • Before/After school programs
  • Homework assistance
  • Mentoring
  • Tutoring
  • Supplemental instruction
  • Enrichment activities
  • Supplies for special projects (ie: art, home economics, science)
  • Referrals for medical, dental, mental and other health services
  • Early childhood programs for homeless preschool age children
  • Services to attract, engage and retain homeless children in school
  • Services to enable students to enroll in and succeed in school
  • Fees and costs associated with tracking and obtaining records
  • Violence prevention counseling
  • Domestic violence counseling
  • Parent education for parents of homeless students
  • School supplies
  • Clothing and hygiene products

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Full-Day Kindergarten Mandate

Because of a state mandate requiring every Oklahoma school district to offer full-day kindergarten for every child beginning with school year 2013-2014, in FY14 districts will no longer be able to use Title I, Part A funds to provide half-day kindergarten programs.

From Oklahoma Legislation §70-18-108:

"Beginning with the 2013-2014 school year, it shall be the duty of every school district in this state to provide and offer a full six-hour day of kindergarten free of tuition for every child residing in the district who attains the age of five (5) years on or before the first day of September during the school year kindergarten is offered.”

Read the full Legislation

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Last updated on August 29, 2014